Triple superphosphate (TSP) was one of the first high-analysis phosphorus (P) fertilizers that became widely used in the 20th century. Technically, it is known as calcium dihydrogen phosphate and as monocalcium phosphate, [Ca(H2PO4)2 .H2O]. Despite its excellent history as a P source, its use has declined as other P fertilizers have become more popular.
The concept of TSP production is relatively simple. Manufacturers make nongranular TSP typically by reacting finely ground phosphate rock with liquid phosphoric acid in a cone-type mixer. Granular TSP is made similarly, but the resulting slurry is sprayed as a coating onto small particles to build granules of the desired size. The product from both production methods then cures for several weeks as the chemical reactions are slowly completed. The chemistry and process of the reaction will vary somewhat depending on the properties of the phosphate rock.
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- It accelerates the growth of the root system of the young plants;
- It shortens the time period of youthful infertility of young grape vines and fruit crops, it accelerates the florescence and the ripening of the fruits;
- It increases the resistance of the plants to freezing and drought;
- It performs a decisive role for the formation of the quality of the production of cereals, vegetable, fruit, technical and oil-bearing crops;
- It eliminates the negative influence of one-sided nitrogen fertilization;
- Plants derive most phosphorus from the soil in the middle of their vegetation when the main volume of vegetative mass is formed and the production is created.
The following is observed if there is no sufficient phosphorus in plants:
- Weak and abnormally developed root system;
- Small-sized and curled at edges blue-green or green leaves with bronze or violet shade;
- The development, florescence and ripening of the fruits are inhibited;
- Low resistance to frost and cold;
- Intensely reduced yield of poor quality.